Baptandier, Brigitte, "Entrer en montagne pour y rêver. Le mont des Pierres et des Bambous." Terrain 26(1996): 99-122.
Bruun, Ole, "Fengshui and the Chinese Perception of Nature." In Ole Bruun & Arne Kalland [eds.], Asian Perceptions of Nature: A Critical Approach. Richmond, Surrey : Curzon, 1995. Pp.173-188.
Bruun, Ole, "The Fengshui Resurgence in China: Conflicting Cosmologies Between State and Peasantry." The China Journal 36(1996):47-65.
Bruun, Ole, Fengshui in China: Geomantic Divination Between State Orthodoxy and Popular Religion. Foreword by Stephan Feuchtwang. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2003.
Chemla, Karine, Donald Harper & Marc Kalinowski [eds.] , Divination et rationalité en Chine ancienne. (Vol.21 of Extrême-Orient/Extrême-Occident: Cahiers de recherches comparatives, Saint-Denis: Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 1999)
Chou, Hansen. “Politics of the Periphery: Religion and Its Place at a City’s Edge in Taiwan.” MA thesis, University of British Columbia, 2009.
Abstract: This thesis explores the recent revival of popular religion in Taiwan through broader anthropological concerns regarding place and space. Swift industrialization and rapid urbanization of past decades have not dissuaded religious practice; instead they have flourished on the island. This study pays specific attention to their proliferation at the urban margins. Drawing on historical and ethnographic data based on field research conducted in 2007, the present work examines the spatial politics of place at a community on the urban periphery, just outside of Taipei in northern Taiwan. More specifically, it analyzes two key sites within the community that locals often evoke as crucial locations in their cultural and social imaginings of place: a cultural heritage district and the local communal temple. It documents various “spatial practices” (de Certeau 1984) of place, and focuses particularly on the divination ritual at the temple. This work draws upon some of the ideas advanced by Henri Lefebvre (1991) in his theorization of urbanization, particularly his notion of “abstract space”: the expanding spaces of homogeneity created in the wake of global capitalism’s spread. By addressing the everyday experiences of space, this thesis addresses the dynamics between histories, affect and place. In all, it argues that, amidst the uncertainties of change brought on by their modern(izing) surroundings, people resort to rituals like divination in hopes to mitigate their maladies and misfortunes. By turning to the past in their attempts to make sense of the present, they further engage in a form of local production.
Clart, Philip, "The Ritual Context of Morality Books: A Case-Study of a Taiwanese Spirit-Writing Cult." Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia, 1996. [See esp. chap. 4.1.1 on forms of spirit-writing.]
Abstract: The present study focusses on the description and analysis of the religious beliefs and practices of a central Taiwanese spirit-writing cult or "phoenix hall" (luantang). A phoenix hall is a voluntary religious association of congregational character centring upon communication with the gods by means of the divinatory technique of "spirit-writing" (fuluan). While spirit-writing can be and is used as an oracle for the solving of believers' personal problems, its more high-profile application is for the writing of so-called "morality books" (shanshu), i.e., books of religious instruction and moral exhortation. Spirit-writing cults are nowadays the most important sources of such works. Much attention has been given to morality books as mirrors of the social concerns of their times, but comparatively little work has been done on the groups that produce them and the meaning these works have for them. An adequate understanding of the meanings and functions of morality books, however, is impossible without some knowledge of the religious groups that produce them and the role played by morality books in their beliefs and practices. It is the objective of this thesis to provide a detailed description and analysis of one such group, the "Temple of the Martial Sage, Hall of Enlightened Orthodoxy" (Wumiao Mingzheng Tang), a phoenix hall in the city of Taizhong that was founded in 1976 and has played a significant role in the modern development of the shanshu genre through the active and varied publications programme of its publishing arm, the Phoenix Friend Magazine Society. The study utilizes data extracted from the Hall's published writings as well as interview, observation, and questionnaire data collected during an eight month period of field research in Taizhong.
Part I provides a macrohistorical overview of the development of spirit-writing cults on the Chinese mainland (chapter 1) and on Taiwan (chapter 2) since the nineteenth century, leading up to the case-example's microhistory (chapter 3). Part II is devoted to an account of the beliefs and practices of the Wumiao Mingzheng Tang, including descriptions and analyses of its organization, deities, ritual activities, concepts of moral cultivation, and of the body of morality book literature it has produced over the years. The appendix contains samples of the cult's morality book and scriptural literature, as well as of various liturgical texts. [Source: author.]
Ebrey, Patricia, "Sung Neo-Confucian Views on Geomancy." In: Irene Bloom & Joshua A. Fogel [eds.], Meeting of Minds: Intellectual and Religious Interaction in East Asian Traditions of Thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. Pp.75-107.
Field, Stephen L., "The Numerology of Nine Star Fengshui: A Hetu, Luoshu Resolution of the Mystery of Directional Auspice." Journal of Chinese Religions 27(1999): 13-33.
Field, Stephen L., "In Search of Dragons: The Folk Ecology of Fengshui." In: N.J. Girardot, James Miller & Liu Xiaogan [eds.], Daoism and Ecology: Ways Within a Cosmic Landscape. Cambridge, MA: Center for the Study of World Religions, distributed by Harvard University Press, 2001. Pp. 185-200.
Field, Steven L. "Who Told the Fortunes? The Speaker in Early Chinese Divination Records." Asia Major, 3rd series, 13, pt.2 (2000): 1-15.
Führer, Bernhard, "Die Projektion der Zukunft in die Vergangenheit. Ein Versuch über 'Die Ballade vom angebissenen Shaobing' (Shaobingge)." In: Christiane Hammer & Bernhard Führer [eds.], Tradition und Moderne - Religion, Philosophie und Literatur in China. Dortmund: projekt verlag, 1997. Pp. 113-142.
Abstract: This essay provides some glimpses at textual traces of the allegedly prophetic text Shaobingge, commonly attributed to Liu Ji (Liu Bowen), strategist and advisor to Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming dynasty. In the light of its development, the Shaobingge is presumed to be a compilation based on legends and predictions scattered in various sources mainly dated post eventum. The current version of the Shaobingge is presumed to have been assembled around the downfall of the Qing and attributed to the celebrated Liu Bowen, shrouded in mystery in order to reinforce its authority in the anti-Manchu propaganda. This essay further investigates some of the linguistic devices used by the unknown compiler(s), who translated the accounts events past into dark and cryptic language riddles pretending to predict the end of both the Ming and the Qing dynasties. [Source of abstract: article]
Hatfield, Donald J. "Fate in the Narrativity and Experience of Selfhood, a Case from Taiwanese chhiam Divination." American Ethnologist 29(2002)4: 857-877.
Homola, Stéphanie. "La relation de maître à disciple en question: transmission orale et écrite des savoirs divinatoires en Chine et à Taiwan." Extrême-Orient, Extrême-Occident 35 (2013): 11-43.
Abstract: This paper explores two contrasting modes of transmission of divinatory knowledge in contemporary Taiwan and mainland China. One is built on the academic model which emphasizes written communication and the other one on the teacher to student relationship which favors oral transmission. In Taiwan, faced with the declining quality of teaching and the multiplication of schools of thought, divinatory arts specialists tried to reform their knowledge and teaching methods to make them fit with the scientific requirements of contemporary society. This endeavor which had already been launched in mainland China in the Republican era, resulted in Taiwan in a boom of popular handbooks and a standardization of training. Then, I qualify this evolution through a case study conducted in mainland China which, on the contrary, highlights the importance of personal relationship and orality in the transfer of mantic techniques. In this context, methods and know-how are taught through predestined affinities, initiatory journeys and legends. (Source: journal)
Kalinowski, Marc, "Technical Traditions in Ancient China and Shushu Culture in Chinese Religion." In: John Lagerwey [ed.], Religion and Chinese Society. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press / Paris: École française d'Extrême-Orient, 2004. Pp.223-248.
Kalinowski, Marc. “Diviners and Astrologers under the Eastern Zhou: Transmitted Texts and Recent Archaeological Discoveries.” In: John Lagerwey and Marc Kalinowski [eds.], Early Chinese Religion: Part One: Shang through Han (1250 BC-220 AD). Leiden: Brill, 2009. Pp.341-396.
Kalinowski, Marc. “La divination sous les Zhou orientaux (770-256 avant notre ère).” In: John Lagerwey [ed.], Religion et société en Chine ancienne et médiévale. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf/Institut Ricci, 2009. Pp. 101-164.
Katz, Paul R. „Spirit-writing Halls and the Development of Local Communities: A Case Study of Puli (Nantou County).“ Min-su ch’ü-i / Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 174 (2011): 103-184.
Keightley, David N., "Theology and the Writing of History: Truth and the Ancestors in the Wu Ding Divination Records." Journal of East Asian Archaeology 1(1999): 207-230.
Kuo, Cheng. “A Study of the Consumption of Chinese Online Fortune Telling Services.” Chinese Journal of Communication 2.3 (2009): 288-306.
Abstract: This study examines consumer behavior in the online fortune telling market. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed through a content analysis of websites, in-depth interviews with website owners, and online consumer surveys. Focus group discussions were conducted to uncover a general profile of and the motives for users who visited fortune telling websites in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and mainland China. In addition, a survey of 6,088 members of major fortune telling websites was conducted in order to identify a dynamic psychological model to explain online fortune telling behavior and attitudes. Three types of explanatory variables were used as predictors - demographics, psychological orientations, and motivations. Results from the analyses indicate that the majority of users were attracted to the fortune telling websites by free trial services. Personal relationship fortunes were the most popular service item consumed by both male and female users. Some consistent patterns regarding the effects of the predictor variables on online fortune telling behavior and attitudes were reported and discussed. The three types of predictors in question all contributed to different online fortune telling behavior and attitudes. Results and implications are reported and discussed.
Lai, Whalen W. "The Earth Mother Scripture: Unmasking the Neo-Archaic." In: Jacob K. Olupona [ed.], Beyond Primitivism: Indigenous Religious Traditions and Modernity. New York, London: Routledge, 2004. Pp. 200-213. [Note: On a spirit-written scripture.]
Lang, Graeme; Chan, Selina Ching. "Divination in Chinese Temples." Chinese Cross Currents 4.3 (2007): 56-77.
Levi, Jean, "Pratiques divinatoires, conjectures et critique rationaliste à l'époque des Royaumes Combattants." Extrême-Orient, Extrême-Occident 21(1999): 67-77.
Liao, Hsien-huei. "Exploring Weal and Woe: the Song Elite's Mantic Beliefs and Practices." T'oung Pao 91(2005)4-5: 347-395
Lip, Evelyn, Fengshui: Environments of Power. A Study of Chinese Architecture. London: John Wiley & Sons, 1995.
Lip, Evelyn, Choosing Auspicious Chinese Names. Torrance, CA: Heian International Publishing Co., 1997.
Lip, Evelyn, What is Feng Shui? London: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
Lippiello, Tiziana, "Interpreting Written Riddles: A Typical Chinese Way of Divination." In: Jan A.M. De Meyer & Peter M. Engelfriet [eds.], Linked Faiths: Essays on Chinese Religion and Traditional Culture in Honour of Kristofer Schipper. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2000. Pp.41-52.
Lippiello, Tiziana, Auspicious Omens and Miracles in Ancient China: Han, Three Kingdoms and Six Dynasties. Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 2001.
Morgan, Carole. "I've Got Your Number. Hong Kong's Medical Prescription Slips." Sanjiao wenxian: Matériaux pour l'étude de la religion chinoise 4(2005): 1-81.
Oguma Makoto. "The Village of 'Two Dragons' and the Village of 'Dragon and Tiger': A Field Study of Fengshui in Two Zhejiang Villages." In: Suenari Michio, J.S. Eades & Christian Daniels [eds.], Perspectives on Chinese Society: Anthropological Views from Japan. Canterbury: Centre for Social Anthropology and Computing, University of Kent, 1995. Pp.120-135.
Paton, Michael. “Fengshui: A Continuation of the ‘Art of Swindlers’?” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 34 (2007) 3: 427-445.
Raphals, Lisa. “Divination and Autonomy: New Perspectives from Excavated Texts.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (Supplement) (2010): 124-141.
Raphals, Lisa. Divination and Prediction in Early China and Ancient Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Abstract: Divination was an important and distinctive aspect of religion in both ancient China and ancient Greece, and this book will provide the first systematic account and analysis of the two side by side. Who practised divination in these cultures and who consulted it? What kind of questions did they ask, and what methods were used to answer those questions? As well as these practical aspects, Lisa Raphals also examines divination as a subject of rhetorical and political narratives, and its role in the development of systematic philosophical and scientific inquiry. She explores too the important similarities, differences and synergies between Greek and Chinese divinatory systems, providing important comparative evidence to reassess Greek oracular divination. (Source: publisher's website)
Reiter, Florian C., ed. Feng Shui (Kan Yu) and Architecture: International Conference in Berlin. Asien- und Afrika-Studien der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, vol.38. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2011.
Abstract: Feng Shui (Kan Yu) and Architecture, edited by Florian C. Reiter, presents the results of a symposium with the same title that in 2010 was held at the Chinese Department of Humboldt-University (Berlin). The symposium assembled a number of specialists in the fields of Chinese, Japanese and Korean studies and also architects from Australia, China, Europe, Japan, New Zealand, Taiwan, and USA. The interdisciplinary exchange of discourses on Feng Shui and its scientific impact on constructions and architecture as practiced today was the avowed purpose of the symposium. The results are presented in thirteen articles that range from aspects of Feng Shui and its reality in Berlin to theoretical excursions into numerology and other either practical or literary and abstract matters of Feng Shui, and also include religion (esp. Buddhism) with exploits of Feng Shui. With contributions by G. Anders, O. Bruun, H. Choy, S.L. Field/J.K. and I. Lee, E. van Goethem, E. Kögel, M.Y. Mak, M. Paton, F.C. Reiter, A.T. So, Tsai Sueyling, Wang Yude, and Hong-key Yoon. (Source: publisher's website)
Schinzel-Lang, Walter, "Feng Shui und die Kunst des azurblauen Raben. Entstehung und Anwendung kosmologischer Prinzipien." das neue China 27(2000)3: 8-12.
Smith, Richard J. Mapping China and Managing the World: Culture, Cartography and Cosmology in Late Imperial Times. London & New York: Routledge, 2013.
Abstract: From the founding of the Qin dynasty in 221 BCE to the present, the Chinese have been preoccupied with the concept of order (zhi). This cultural preoccupation has found expression not only in China’s highly refined bureaucratic institutions and methods of social and economic organization but also in Chinese philosophy, religious and secular ritual, and a number of comprehensive systems for classifying every form of human achievement, as well as all natural and supernatural phenomena. Richard J. Smith’s Mapping China and Managing the World focuses on several crucial devices employed by the Chinese for understanding and ordering their vast and variegated world, which they saw as encompassing "all under Heaven." The book begins with discussions of how the ancient work known as the Yijing (Classic of Changes) and maps of "the world" became two prominent means by which the Chinese in imperial times (221 BCE to 1912) managed space and time. Smith goes on to show how ritual (li) served as a powerful tool for overcoming disorder, structuring Chinese society, and maintaining dynastic legitimacy. He then develops the idea that just as the Chinese classics and histories ordered the past, and ritual ordered the present, so divination ordered the future. The book concludes by emphasizing the enduring relevance of the Yijing in Chinese intellectual and cultural life as well as its place in the history of Sino-foreign interactions. (Source: publisher's website)
Strassberg, Richard E. [trsl]. Wandering Spirits: Chen Shiyuan’s Encyclopedia of Dreams. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.
Abstract: Dreams have been taken seriously in China for at least three millennia. Wandering Spirits is a translation and study of the most comprehensive work on dream culture in traditional China–Lofty Principles of Dream Interpretation (Mengzhan yizhi), compiled in 1562 by Chen Shiyuan and periodically reprinted up to the modern era. The best introduction to the diversity of ideas held by the educated class about dreams, this unique treatise compiles various theories, Chen's own comments concerning the nature of dreams and their role in waking life, and almost seven hundred examples assembled from a wide range of literary sources. This annotated translation is accompanied by a full-length introduction that surveys the evolution of Chinese dream culture and the role of Chen Shiyuan and his encyclopedia. [Source: publisher's website]
Strätz, Volker, "Materialien zu Tierkreisen in China." Monumenta Serica 44(1996): 213-265.
Strickmann, Michel. Chinese Poetry and Prophecy: The Written Oracle in East Asia. Edited by Bernard Faure. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005.
Tsu, Timothy, "Geomancy and the Environment in Premodern Taiwan." Asian Folklore Studies 56 (1997): 65-77.
Xu, Yinong, The Chinese City in Space and Time: The Development of Urban Form in Suzhou. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2000. (See chapter 7: "The City in Fengshui Interpretations.")