Mit dem Pre-Doc Award fördern wir an unserer Universität Studienabsolventinnen und -absolventen in der Vorbereitung auf ihre Promotionsphase sowie Postdocs in ihren Fähigkeiten, Promovierende zu betreuen. Ziel ist es, innerhalb der Pre-Doc Award Förderphase gemeinsam das Promotionsprojekt auszureifen sowie eine Finanzierung für die geplante Promotion zu erlangen.
Die Bewerbungsrunde für das Förderjahr 2020 / 21 ist abgeschlossen. Die prämierten Tandems geben wir frühstmöglich hier bekannt. Die nächste Ausschreibung ist für Frühjahr 2021 anvisiert.
Ausgezeichnete Forschung, Betreuung und Nachwuchsförderung
Mit dem Pre-Doc Award etablieren wir an unserer Universität ein strategisches Programm im Bereich der Nachwuchsförderung. In diesem bieten wir Postdocs und Promotionsinteressierten mit einem sehr guten Studienabschluss die Möglichkeit, gemeinsam ein Forschungsvorhaben zu projektieren. Bereitgestellt wird die Unterstützung durch eine einjährige WHK-Stelle im Umfang von 19 Stunden pro Woche. In dieser Zeit können die geförderten Tandems zum einen der Projektplanung Detailtiefe und Qualität verleihen und zum anderen eine Finanzierung der Promotion einwerben. Dies kann seitens der Postdocs über Drittmittelanträge oder seitens der Pre-Docs über Stipendienbewerbungen geschehen. Im besten Fall ermöglicht der Pre-Doc Award somit einen zügigen Übergang qualifizierter Absolventinnen und Absolventen in eine fachlich fundiert geplante sowie finanziell abgesicherte Promotionsphase.
Der Pre-Doc Award verfolgt demzufolge die Ziele,
- den wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs früh zu fördern,
- die Betreuungskompetenz von Postdocs zu stärken,
- sowie innovative Forschung zu stimulieren.
Somit trägt er zur Umsetzung des Personalentwicklungskonzepts unserer Universität bei. Er zählt auch zu den strategischen Förderinstrumenten im Bereich Nachwuchsförderung, zu denen wir uns im Hochschulentwicklungsplan (HEP 2025) bekennen. Erstmals wurde der Pre-Doc Award 2017 ausgeschrieben und erprobt. Seither vergeben wir jährlich bis zu 20 Awards. Der Pre-Doc Award ist im Prorektorat für Forschung und wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs angesiedelt und wird von Herrn Professor Dr. Schröger geleitet.
Sie haben „die Idee“ für Ihre Promotion, aber noch keine Finanzierung?
Dann bieten wir Ihnen möglicherweise genau das richtige Programm für Ihre Situation! An unserer Universität unterstützen wir Ihren Weg in eine Promotion mit einer Vorbereitungsstelle als Wissenschaftliche Hilfskraft, wenn:
- Sie einen sehr guten Studienabschluss vorweisen können oder kurz davorstehen, diesen zu erreichen
- Sie an der Universität Leipzig promovieren möchten und bereits ein Themengebiet und Ideen für eine Fragestellung haben
- Sie entschlossen sind, für Ihre Promotion eine Finanzierung einzuwerben (entweder durch die Zusammenarbeit mit einer oder einem Postdoc, die oder der für Sie im Rahmen eines Projektes eine Promotionsstelle beantragt oder durch die Einwerbung eines Stipendiums)
- eine promovierte Wissenschaftlerin oder ein promovierter Wissenschaftler mit Ihnen im Rahmen der Pre-Doc Award Antragstellung, im Verlauf des Pre-Doc Award – Jahres und bestenfalls darüber hinaus zusammenarbeitet und Sie fachlich sowie ideell beraten und unterstützen kann
Sie möchten als Postdoc Ihre Betreuungs-Fähigkeiten ausbauen und zur Nachwuchsförderung beitragen?
Dann könnte der Pre-Doc Award für Sie interessant sein. Wir haben dieses Programm auch entwickelt, um Sie in den Phasen Ihrer Laufbahn nach der Promotion zu fördern. Mit der Unterstützung eines Pre-Docs als betreuender Postdoc erfüllen Sie einige Bereiche des vielfältigen Anforderungsportfolios, dem Sie als Postdoc in der Wissenschaft begegnen:
- Einwerbung von Drittmitteln
- Unterstützung und Betreuung von Promovierenden
- Gewinnung von Nachwuchswissenschaftlerinnen und -wissenschaftlern mit thematisch ähnlichem Fokus wie Ihrem eigenen
- Aufbau eines Netzwerkes innerhalb und außerhalb der Universität
- Bewerbung auf wissenschaftliche Preise und Auszeichnungen
Also sprechen Sie geeignete Pre-Doc Award Kandidatinnen und Kandidaten an! Mit dem Pre-Doc Award richten wir uns vor allem an Postdocs mit bestehenden oder sich im Aufbau befindenden eigenen Nachwuchsgruppen. Es sind jedoch auch Promovierte in frühen Phasen nach der Promotion sowie Inhabende einer Junior- oder Tenure – Track – Professur angesprochen.
Die Kohorte 2020 startet in ihr Förderjahr
Die Förderphase der dritten Pre-Doc Award Kohorte startete am 1. Januar 2020. Die meisten der Awardees nahmen zu diesem Zeitpunkt oder wenig später ihre Arbeit auf.
Am 19. Februar 2020 fand in der Villa Tillmanns von 14 bis 18 Uhr die Kickoff-Veranstaltung statt. In ihrem Grußworte gratulierte unserer Kanzlerin, Frau Professorin Birgit Dräger, den Awardees und ermutigte sie, die neu gewonnene Freiheit für die Arbeit an den Forschungsprojekten und für die Antragstellung zu nutzen. Auch Prorektor Schröger warb für Eigeninitiative und ermutigte die Awardees, auch die impliziten Möglichkeiten des Programms zur Vernetzung und dem interdisziplinären Austausch auszuschöpfen. Alle Awardee-Tandems stellten sich selbst und ihre Projekte mit Kurzpräsentationen vor. Neben einem Ausblick auf das Rahmenprogramm im Laufe des Awardjahres gab es viel Zeit fürs Netzwerken in angenehmer Atmosphäre.
Pre-Doc Awardees 2020
Im Folgenden finden Sie die Promotionsvorhaben der Awardees aus der Kohorte 2020. Die Promotionsinteressenten werden im Verlauf des Jahres gemeinsam mit den promovierten Forschenden jeweils ihr Projekt weiterentwickeln und versuchen, innerhalb des Förderzeitraumes eine finanzielle Förderung für die Promotion einzuwerben.
When do youth generalize representations of parents to peers? One size fits all or generalizing only to those who fit
Abstract: The phenomenon whereby mental representations of significant others guide one’s perception, affect and behavior during encounters with unfamiliar individuals has long caught the attention of researchers and practitioners. However, cognitive-affective mechanisms underlying this process remain surprisingly underspecified to date. The present project aims to shed light upon developmental and clinical aspects of representation generalization by a design combining social-cognitive transference paradigm and game-theoretical tasks. To this end, we are going to examine the extent to which maltreated youth and their non-maltreated counterparts generalize their parental representations to new peers during a computerized Trust Game and how this reflects on their emotion and behavior.
Unravelling the role of catalytic RNAs in bacteria
Abstract: Ribozymes are ribonucleic acids (RNAs) that perform chemical reactions. Fourteen different ribozyme classes are known in nature and they catalyze often essential functions in the cell. Nine ribozyme classes are self‑cleaving. These ribozymes cut their own phosphate backbone site‑specifically into two pieces by a transesterification reaction. Although the biological functions of some of these self-cleaving ribozymes are well understood, for the majority of individual examples — and especially for entire self-cleaving ribozyme classes — the biological significance remains completely unknown. It is our goal to elucidate functions of self-cleaving ribozymes in bacteria, where, apart from a single exception, we know nothing about the biological roles of these abundant and highly conserved RNAs.
The art of print. Close readings under inclusion of materiality: Stefan George's Tage und Thaten and Arno Holz's Phantasus.
Einrichtung: Philologische Fakultät, Institut für Germanistik
Abstract: My dissertation project is located in the field of literary studies and can be understood as a contribution to a philological countermovement aiming at its ‚rephilologisation’. I attempt close reading that specifically poses questions about the various logics and functions of elements of literary texts. Thus my project seeks to elaborate the individual aesthetic facture of a text, instead of examining it on account of the biographical background of its author or the general defining characteristics of a literary epoch. In addition, an essential aspect of my approach is the increased attention to the materiality of literary texts, e.g. to its typographical realization, asking if or how this materiality might be understood as part of its aesthetic reflection.
The role of bacterial translocation to adipose tissue in metabolic disease
Einrichtung: Klinik für Endokrinologie und Nephrologie
Ms. Tabei has left Leipzig University mid-February to take up a PhD-position that was offered to her at another German university. We wish her all the best for her personal pathway and research career.
Post-translational protein modification in Parkinson’s disease
Einrichtung: Paul-Flechsig-Institut für Hirnforschung
Abstract: Does a common pathogenic mechanism in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer´s- (AD) and Parkinson´s disease (PD) exist? To answer this question, we focus on glutaminyl cyclase (QC). The key role of QC-modified-amyloid-beta-peptides is a well-established fact. Now, the assumption of similar molecular mechanisms in PD will be verified by testing α-synuclein fragments as substrates for QC in vitro and in vivo. Further, aggregation and neurotoxic characteristics of modified-α-synuclein will be compared to maternal α-synuclein-peptides in primary mouse neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells. Finally, in co-aggregation assays modified-α-synuclein and Amyloid-beta-peptides will be tested to get insights into protein cross-seeding events that may accelerate neurotoxicity. The major goal is to find a novel overlapping therapeutic target for AD and PD.
The Undoing-effect of Positive Emotions - Psychophysiological Benefits and unknown Scopes of Positive Emotions in Sports
Abstract: Although, research in Sport Psychology aims to promote physical activity and help people to realize their potential, prevalent topics of interest are predominantly deficit-oriented. Our project takes a view of a resouce-oriented field of Positive Psychology and aims to investigate the Undo-Effect of Positive Emotions in the context in psychophysiological stress of performance-oriented athletes. Therefore, a series of lab and field studies are planned. By examining the underlying mechanism of action, we strive to deduce guidance for athletes and coaches in order to enable sport performance in a sustainable and healthy way.
state neutrality – the historical development of a political term
Abstract: State neutrality – the equal treatment of subjects of fundamental rights and the equal distance to certain parties, religions or world views - is currently of great interest. Verdicts against the right to wear a hijab in court or concerning public officials speaking out against the far right occupy courts or fuel public debates. This project examines the definition of state neutrality in the legal discourse: How is the understanding of state neutrality shaped by the historical situations? It will follow the hypothesis that major historical shifts such as the post-1968 turn to the left, the establishment of a migration society or the current rise of the far right are reflected or repelled on the legal terrain through the (re)definition of state neutrality.
Shiʿa Islam on a Global Scope: Uṣūlī Religious Literature in the Eastern Islamic World
Abstract: During the 18th and 19th centuries, a Shiʿa Islam reform movement called uṣūlīs aimed at modernizing and globalizing the Shiʿa community based on rational philosophy. Between 1750 and 1857, the Shiʿa dynasty of the Nawabs in North India embraced this approach, and facilitated further intellectual exchange within its realm. However, as only limited research has yet been done, the consequences for Islamic thought in Asia have remained unclear until today. By examining the transmission of Arabic texts from Iraq via Iran to Northern India, and their reception in the dominant Islamic literary languages of Muslims on the Indian subcontinent (Persian and Urdu), the project will analyse transregional intellectual developments in the eastern Islamic world.
How does the child become rational? Understanding the process of familial upbringing with Hegel and the late Wittgenstein
Abstract: What is the fundamental difference between humans and animals? Referring to so-called “transformative theories of rationality”, I understand humans as essentially rational animals: their rational capacities fundamentally transforms their animality. Where to locate and how to understand this transformation? I argue that it is in the context of familial upbringing that a human being acquires rational capacities. The question then is: How to conceive of an infant before the process of turning it into a rational being? And how to conceive of that process? I aim to answer these questions with reference to Hegel and Wittgenstein. I will try to show that rationality emerges when the child is being introduced into an existing linguistic lifeform.
Tandemfoto 2020: Höhle
Biogegegraphical, ecological, and morphological variability of European Cyprideis (Ostracoda)
Einrichtung: Institut für Geophysik und Geowissenschaften
Abstract: Invertebrates are highly diverse, vast array of ecosystem services, and important for the human wellbeing, but still often neglected in biodiversity conservation policies. One of them are ostracods, which are popular model organisms to study their biogeography, biodiversity and evolution and the interaction with climatological and ecological changes on geological timescales. Our aim is the understanding of correlation between geographical range, ecological preferences and morphological variability of the brackish water species Cyprideis torosa.
Morphometric investigations of C. torosa soft and hard parts may differentiate geographical morphotypes and/or species with differing ecological preferences and tolerances. Furthermore, the radiation of Cyprideis species in Europe may show geographical patterns, reflecting e.g., changes between glacial and interglacial.
Biomechanics and regeneration of the equine digital superficial flexor tendon examined with High-Speed Fluorescence Kinematography
Abstract: The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is one of the most injured structures of the musculoskeletal system in sport horses. The project’s aim is to visualize and measure morphometric changes and strain of sound and injured equine SDFT in vivo during motion in walk and trot using biplanar high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography (FluoKin) as an innovative motion analysis technique. The project brings already performed fundamental ex vivo examination into a clinical context. Examination of sound, injured and healing equine SDFT during motion is usable as a model to study biomechanical properties of tendons as a model for pathogenesis and therapy of human tendopathies.
Literarische Polemik in der Dichtung der römischen Republik – Literary polemics in Roman republican poetry
Einrichtung: Institut für Klassische Philologie und Komparatistik
Abstract: Polemical quarrels among people of public interest are not an invention of modern – or even digital – times. Instead, already in classical antiquity people were accusing and insulting each other on a regular basis. Of course, that seems to be a mostly oral phenomenon, but when it comes to poets, things are different: They incorporate their polemics against colleagues or critics into their literary works. Thus, in some cases we still have the opportunity to analyse them. When poets discuss their work and their quality, they necessarily discuss about fundamental questions of poetry. Therefore, my analysis will mainly concentrate on poetological issues treated in polemical passages and how they are formulated.
Language and Experience – A Kantian Approach
Einrichtung: Institut für Philosophie
Abstract: We could not acquire knowledge about our environment if we were not able to perceive it in some way or another. But what exactly is the nature of the contribution that
perception makes to knowledge? The standard answers given by contemporary philosophers differ widely at the level of detail, but most of them share the idea that
perception presents something to us on the basis of which we can make judgments about the things we perceive. Bastian argues that any such answer runs into serious
problems, and that we can avoid these problems if we turn to Kant and extract from his text an alternative conception of experience. According to this alternative conception,
perceptual experience is a judgment.
Jurisprudence of climate change
Abstract: There is no doubt that climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing modern society, and its management requires far-reaching social and economic transformation. In order to manage and legitimize the necessary changes, the law has often been made responsible: International treaties oblige states to reduce greenhouse gases, there are lawsuits by associations and individuals against states, against the EU and against corporations. Despite this diverse instruments in the law, the available means appear to be both inadequate and inappropriate. This project aims to investigate why the law has so far been so difficult to find an adequate approach to climate change.
Pre-Doc Awardees 2019
Abschluss der Förderphase
Von März 2019 bis Anfang 2020 durchlief die 2. Tandem-Kohorte das Pre-Doc Award-Jahr an unserer Universität. Folgende 20 Tandems und Projekte wurden in diesem Durchgang gefördert:
Thema: Law and Human Emancipation
Einrichtung: Institut für Philosophie
Abstract: There is no doubt that the evolution and installment of rights and a legal system protecting these has advanced emancipation. Modern societies without rights are identified as authoritarian. But the system that the bourgeois revolution brought forth by legal means has its own means of oppression. A critique of capitalism is therefore necessarily a critique of the legal system that lays at its core. Studying Marxist inspired theories of law, I try to analyze what role rights and law play in the oppression specific for capitalism, to ask what rights and law would do and look like in an emancipated, post-capitalist society, and to find possible points of connection with a practical movement aiming to create that society.
Thema: "Feeding the cycle": Westphalian fallacies, Local Agency, and Persistent Violence in Post-Intervention Societies
Einrichtung: Global and European Studies Institute
Abstract: The project examines the complex relationship between violent conflict and intervention. Specifically, it investigates conditions, under which external intervention in conflict environments exacerbates – rather than ameliorates the underlying conflict dynamics. While much of academia and the intervening bodies themselves frame such operations as impartial efforts in building sustainable peace and institutions, which are to be assessed according to predefined benchmarks of security and governance, the project focuses on the deep hybridity of such undertakings. It posits a reciprocal dynamic between an "interveners mindset" boxed in by myopic discourses of state-centrism and local strategies of "extraversion" appropriating these discourses in order to realize potentially conflicting political projects. The result would be a cyclical political economy, in which persistent violence is not a malfunction but an integral feature. Crucially, this cycle expresses a substantial functionality of governance (albeit one that fuels conflict), which eludes Eurocentric descriptions of failure and deficiency. The project aims to capture these dynamics through a comparative case study design. Verifying the underlying hypotheses would have far-ranging implications, not only in accounting for gaps in the academic literature on violent conflict, but also for addressing fundamental shortcomings of international conflict and development policies.
Thema: Beyond East and West: Searching for an alternative methodology in the study of mindfulness meditation
Abstract: Mindfulness, originated in Asian Buddhist context, is by far the most studied, popularized and secularized form of meditation. Today, backed up by "hard" scientific evidence, it has given rise to great public and academic interests. Granted its popularity, there is no really satisfying method for deciphering the mindfulness experiences. To advance the research, we believe what is essential and beneficial is to bring in perspectives from the east. The aim of this PhD work is to search for a more integrated methodology in the study of mindfulness experience. We begin with a careful examination of the "clash of epistemologies" between Buddhism and science, and proceed with interviews with Buddhist meditation masters for alternative perspectives and experience in deepening our reflections.
Thema: Classroom discourse in science learning: Students' participation and teachers' scaffolding strategies
Einrichtung: Erziehungswissenschaftliche Fakultät
Abstract: Recently, there has been an increasing interest in investigating classroom discourse, its characteristics, effects on students' outcomes and especially on implications for beneficial discourse. To date, there rarely is empirical research, which simultaneously investigates students' participation in classroom discourse and teachers' scaffolding strategies and their effects. Our aim is, to combine the two research lines and to investigate students' participation in science instruction as well as teachers' use of scaffolding strategies to support learners' participation and consequently their motivational and cognitive development. For that, we will re-analyze data from the video study PLUS (Tröbst et al., 2016) and aim at developing and applying a theory-based category system, which assesses teachers' scaffolding strategies and their adaptivity as well as learners' participation in classroom discourse.
Thema: Differences in cortical neurogenesis and maturation between precocial and altricial species
Einrichtung: Veterinär-Anatomisches Institut
Abstract: Among mammals, two major life history patterns at birth are known: altriciality, when the young are relatively immature for a long time after birth; and precocity, when the young are autonomous within a few hours after birth. Preliminary data suggest that the pattern of prental neurogenesis and brain maturation differs between precocial and altricial species; however, a detailed comparison of brain development between precocial and altricial species is lacking. It is therefore the aim of this project to compare patterns of brain development, specifically neocortex neurogenesis and maturation, between closely related precocial (spiny mouse, European hare) and altricial (laboratory mouse, rabbit) species. This will provide insight into the evolutionary mechanisms that regulate mammalian brain development and the process of speciation.
Thema: Rereading Rape: Towards New Understandings of Sexual Violence in Contemporary US-American Literature and Culture
Einrichtung: Institut für Amerikanistik
Abstract: The pop-cultural imaginary of the United States is teeming with depictions of rape. Sexual violence attracts continuous public attention, and therefore appears symptomatic as well as expressive of greater power negotiations. In comparison to previous decades, however, there seems to be a pronounced difference in the representation(s) of sexual violence in contemporary US-American popular culture, not least because of a novel range of texts from new media. Drawing on American Studies' idea of cultural work, we will investigate US-American popular culture as a playing field for negotiations and conceptualizations of sexual violence. Specifically, this project identifies a new textuality of rape narratives that necessitates a transmedial textual analysis catering to 21st century means of expression.
Thema: Respatialisation of the French Colonial Empire in Asia: An In-Depth Analysis of the Socio-Economic Strategies of the French Rule in India and Indochina, 1820-1914
Einrichtung: Global and European Studies Institute
Abstract: Historical research on empire in the 19th century, including from New Imperial History perspectives, has focused on the British Empire and largely neglected a comprehensive study of the French Empire. Within the smaller field of French imperial history, however, researchers have focused on North and sub-Saharan Africa but not on Asia. This dissertation aims to update the state of the art on the French Empire in India and Indochina and situate these findings within global and imperial history debates. I will analyse archival material (i.e., civil registries, maps, and business records) using statistical and digitalhumanities methods. In conclusion, this project suggests that the study of the plurality and contradictions of French colonial legacies in Asia helps to shift the centre of the debates in global and imperial history.
Thema: Efficacy of theta neurofeedback training in promoting flow experience and sport-associated performance outcomes.
Einrichtung: Institut für Sport- und Bewegungspsychologie
Abstract: The research field of sport psychology generally aims to identify psychological factors contributing to athletes' peak performance. Self-regulation abilities such as emotional and attentional control have been recognized as important features of successful athletes. In detail, athletes with enhanced self-regulation during competitions experience stronger flow states and show improved performance. Importantly, those self-regulation abilities are likely mediated by cognitive control processes, defined as neural mechanisms supporting the adaptation of the cognitive system to achieve current task goals. It is widely acknowledged that cognitive control is implemented by theta oscillations that generate in the midcingulate cortex. Therefore, we aim to investigate whether the upregulation of mid-frontal theta activity via neurofeedback training will improve flow experience and sport-associated performance outcomes.
Thema: Artikulierte Einheit
Einrichtung: Institut für Philosophie
Abstract: What is the right method in philosophy, specifically in metaphysical reflection? In the present debate there are two frequently given answers. According to the first, philosophy should proceed like any other science and formulate systematically arranged propositional sentences about its object of inquiry. The second answer claims that there is no such object for philosophy, and that its method should consist in an explicit presentation of that which we all already know implicitly insofar as we are thinkers and knowers at all. Taking a cue from Kant, in my dissertation I will argue that both of these answers coincide into one: philosophy can only carry out its explicatory project if it brings out the inherently systematic self-conscious unity of thought.
Thema: Transiency in German-language contemporary prose fiction
Einrichtung: Institut für Germanistik
Abstract: This project is dedicated to an anthropological fundamental issue: the transience of all being. For centuries, a specific time- and motif-structure is characteristic for the representations of temporality and evanescence in the medium of art. In the present age, experiences of suddenness and the fast pace of life as well as the discrepancy between 'retain' and 'release' (of objects, values, social relationships, finally: life) are ubiquitous. I argue that this trend also manifests itself in contemporary narrative texts, not only through the re-enactment and/or an actualisation of passed on techniques, but also through new patterns and approaches to transform transience into written words. It is striking that today’s literature operates with modified ‘narratives’ and a recourse to historical ways (e.g. the baroque vanitas topos) to anticipate and perform 'endured loss'. I will derive a theoretical model of transiency presentations in prose and develop a workable concept of the transience topos in present-day narrative texts.
Thema: Mapping Digital Feminist Activisms in Europe
Einrichtung: Institut für Kulturwissenschaften
Abstract: The research project will examine the changing practices of digital feminist activisms against the contradictory backdrop of surging populism and authoritarianism and the growing visibility of grievances in light of technological change. Based on initiatives, campaigns and movements in Hungary, Austria, Turkey and Germany, as well as on the basis of transnational European networks, digital landscapes of feminist activisms in Europe and the ways transnational digital feminist activisms intersects with different national configurations of feminist political work, will be examined. The results will be condensed into a systematic theorization of the communicative side of feminist activisms, so that a better understanding of these communication processes, emerging public spheres, (transnational) solidarity and resistance practices becomes possible.
Thema: How socio-ecological characteristics influence cognition in ungulates
Einrichtung: Institut für Biologie
Abstract: Ungulate species show an impressive variety of socio-ecological characteristics like dietary breadth, predation level, group size, fission-fusion sociality or domestication level. By testing different species, we will assess which of these socio-ecological characteristics are linked to enhanced performance in different cognitive tasks, while controlling for intra-specific variation (in terms of sex, age, rank, sociality, personality). By directly comparing their performance with the same battery of ecologically valid cognitive tasks, we will be able to understand which evolutionary forces likely led to the emergence of these skills. Our project will use a consolidated methodological approach to reliably map the distribution of cognitive skills within and across ungulate species varying in terms of brain size, ecological and social characteristics.
Thema: Effects of strength-endurance exercise training on blood volume in ischemic heart disease patients
Einrichtung: Institut für Sportmedizin und Prävention
Abstract: Heart failure is a multifactorial and systemic disease, in which the ventricular dysfunction of the heart muscle leads to volume overload and circulation redistribution. Anemia is also a common consequence. Exercise training is an effective therapy for patients with heart failure. In turn, endurance training has a significant effect on the composition of the blood. In training studies only concentration-dependent blood parameters of heart failure patients have been measured in exercise programs so far. The aim of the proposed randomized controlled trial is therefore to examine possibly exercise-induced changes in blood volume and hemoglobin mass for the first time in patients with heart failure.
Thema: Selective Catalytic Ammonia Oxidation (NH3-SCO) over Copper-Exchanged Zeolite USY
Einrichtung: Institut für Technische Chemie
Abstract: The selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia into nitrogen and water vapor is among the most promising methods for elimination of NH3 from diesel car off-gas. It is generated onboard from a urea solution and used as a reducing agent in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx. However, catalysts (including micro-/mesoporous materials) of sufficient activity, selectivity and stability under application-relevant reaction conditions are not yet available. Our project focuses on the postsynthetic modification of the ultrastable zeolite Y (USY) by mesopore generation and its influence on the catalytic properties of the resulting micro-/mesoporous materials in NH3-SCO. The wide range of methods used for preparation and physico-chemical characterization of catalysts enables to describe their structural and textural properties and to determine active species involved in NH3-SCO.
Thema: Life and Mind - Hegel on the formal difference between human beings and other animals
Einrichtung: Institut für Philosophie
Abstract: According to a long philosophical tradition, reaching back to Aristotle and the German Idealists, what is thought to be distinctive of human beings compared to other animals is their rationality. But what is the relation between rationality and the capacities we share with mere animals? Recently this question has been taken up by important contemporary philosophers like John McDowell or Matthew Boyle who argue that reason can neither be reduced to some animal capacity, nor treated as an additional capacity over and above our animal capacities. Rather, the difference manifests itself in the way all capacities of a human being form a self-conscious unity. Accounts arguing along these lines are called Transformative Theories of Rationality. The two main goals of my project are to show on systematic grounds that recent accounts of Transformative Theories of Rationality face serious problems, and that we can find the resources to overcome these problems in Hegel's writings.
Thema: Novel Methods for Orthology Inferrence and Gene Tree / Species Tree Reconciliation
Einrichtung: Institut für Informatik
Abstract: A major task in bioinformatics is the retrieval of the evolutionary history of given species and their genes based on knowlege of amino acid sequences. A novel approach to this task uses certain mathematical relations, that are to be obtained from pairwise distances between genes. It is expected that the generated relations will allow the reconstruction of the phylogentetic trees reflecting the evolution of the genes and their species. The task therefore boils down to two objectives: (a) The generation of the mathematical relations from pairwise gene distances and (b) the reconstruction of the phylogentetic trees from those relations.
Thema: Religion as a means to create the new socialist citizen. On the atypical appreciation of new religions and esotericism in socialist Bulgaria
Einrichtung: Religionswissenschaftliches Institut
Abstract: The project focuses on communist Bulgaria of the 1970s and especially on one of the most controversial political figures of that time: Lyudmila Zhivkova (1942–81), culture minister and the only daughter of the leader of the Bulgarian communist party Todor Zhivkov. Being in possession of political power and material resources, she was able to implement the living ethics, Nicholas and Elena Roerich's philosophical theory, based on theosophy and mysticism, in Bulgaria’s educational and cultural policies. The project concentrates on her double role as a political and religious actor at the same time and aims at the subsequent question: How do religion and politics intersect in the person and agency of Lyudmila Zhivkova and, in a broader perspective, how was religion in general conceptualized in socialist Bulgaria?
Thema: Human needs and human nature
Einrichtung: Institut für Philosophie
Abstract: To define justice, we need a substantial notion which draws on the concept of need/desire (Bedürfnis). In order to play this role, the concept must meet three conditions: needs must be distinguished from wants, in that their satisfaction must not be optional for us. Our relationship to our needs must be practical. And the needs of another must be able to move us to act in the way our own can. In the PhD project, Weyand aims to develop this conception of human needs. With ideas of Aristotle and Marx she aims to develop an account of what being a self-conscious creature is which supports a concept of needs which meets these conditions.
Thema: The Political Characterology as a Method – Hannah Arendt and Leo Löwenthal
Einrichtung: Institut für Kulturwissenschaften
Abstract: Hannah Arendt is considered one of the great minds of 20th century, although much of her works lack a certain scientific reliability. Hannah Arendt's understanding seems to point to something deeper than scientific accuracy. With the term "Political Characterology" I try to come closer to understanding Hannah Arendt's "unsystematically" way of theorizing in much of her works. Leo Löwenthal serves as counterpart to balance Hannah Arendt's idiosyncratic method. In his works we find a solid method of characterology based on historic and literary research. With the help of Löwenthal's systematization of the characterology as a scientific method using literary style, I try to outline a way political analysis that could bridge the gap between historical data and epistemological understanding.
Thema: Multicellular Tumor Spheroids, a model system for investigation of solid tumor mechanics
Einrichtung: Peter-Debye-Institut für Physik der weichen Materie
Abstract: It has been shown that the mechanical properties of the tumor environment correlate with the aggressivity of the tumor. As well as tumor cells are softer than healthy cells, while the tumor as a whole is stiffer than the healthy surrounding. As primary tissues are very complex, we are using the Multicellular Tumor Spheroids as a 3D model. MTS mimic important features of the real tissue, such as the heterogeneity of nutrients, pH value, oxygen, growth and signal factors. The mechanical environment is set by other cells, and ECM produced by them, and not the hard substrate of a petri dish. We expect the cells in a MTS to be in a jammed or fluid state based on phenotype. This project focusses on the contribution of the cytoskeleton of individual cells to the mechanics of the whole spheroid. We plan to systematically address individual components of the cytoskeleton by using drugs and toxins (cytochalasin D, Jasplakinolide, taxol, nocadazole, ML7 and etc.). We expect that softening the cytoskeleton will push the cells towards an unjammed state, while stiffening the cells or reducing the motility drives them into a jammed state. Addressing the individual sub-networks we hope to isolate their respective contribution to the overall mechanical properties of the spheroid.